מאי 03, 2023

Finding psyllids in Southeastern Arizona

So you're visiting Southeastern Arizona (or perhaps you live here) and you want to find as many species of psyllids as reasonably possible? Here's everything you need to know.

The Basics

First, it's good to remember that psyllids are small. Most species average 2-3mm, and most native species aren't super prolific on their hosts and can be hard to spot in the field. Some species may produce galls or other forms of leaf damage on their hosts, which can be useful to recognize. Some species may sporacidally come to lights, but sweeping or beating known host plants is usually the most effective way to find psyllids. It is recommended to familiarize yourself with the psyllid hostplants outlined here first (or just invite me with you on your psyllid expeditions I know where everything is).

Lowland species

Part 1: Mesquite Psyllids

As you're exiting your hotel or house and walking to your car you may notice that there are a lot of mesquite trees in Southern Arizona. You'll find mesquite in natural areas but also all over the cities planted along the streets and parking lots. If you look in any given direction from a random point in the city of Tucson you'll probably have a mesquite tree in your line of vision. Many different insects feed on mesquite, and you can probably spend days documenting the various species that you can find on the plant. You can reasonably expect to find 3 species of psyllids on the plant (shown below) and you'll probably be able to find many additional cool non-psyllid insects as well while you look for them.

Heteropsylla texana (above, left) is fairly distinctive, with consistent dark maculae on the wing. The other two species, Aphalaroida inermis (above, middle) and Aphalaroida spinifera (above, right) are more variable, ranging from uniformly green to brownish with a well defined pattern, but the two species can always be told apart by the absense or presence of dense hairs covering the entire body and wings. While Heteropsylla texana and Aphalaroida inermis are found throughout the western states, Aphalaroida spinifera is an Arizona endemic, and fortunately not too hard to find.

Part 2: Some related species on other Mimosoid legumes

Mesquite is just one of several Mimosoid trees common in arid parts of southeast Arizona, and it's good to familiarize yourself with a few others. Thorn trees (Vachelia) and catclaw Acacia (Senegalia greggii) both host psyllid species, with Aphalaroida pithecolobia (below, left) on the latter and an undetermined Aphalaroida sp. (below, right) on the former. Both are similar to the aforementioned Aphalaroida spinifera but with generally shorter setae on the wings and body.

Part 3: Lycium Psyllids

Lycium (boxthorn) is a shrubby plant not quite as ubiquitous in cities as mesquite, but it is still very common in lowland areas and you shouldn't have difficulty finding it in canyons or other natural areas. 3 species of psyllids can be found on Lycium, and I guarantee you will find at least one.

Bactericera cockerelli (above, left) is without a doubt the most common western species. While Lycium is its native host, it has expanded its range to include other Solanaceae such as cultivated potato, tomato, and peppers, and is often regarded as a pest because of this. You will likely be able to find this species on Lycium growing in Arizona, but it is also likely not going to be your primary target. Bactericera dorsalis (above, middle) is a much more interesting find, but at a glance it can easily be mistaken for the Bactericera cockerelli. The coloration is different but also quite variable, and the the wings are more angulate and the venation different; I advise looking through images to familiarize yourself with the extent of variation of this species so that you don't overlook it and mistake it for Bactericera cockerelli. The final Lycium species, Bactericera lobata, is the real main attraction though it is a much rarer find. The wings are heavily maculated and is unlikely to be confused with anything else.

Part 4: Hackberry Psyllids

If you're from the Eastern USA you might already be familiar with hackberry psyllids, many of which are gall-inducers and can be quite abundant. The hackberry psyllid fauna of Arizona is somewhat unique, and worth investigating even if you think you're familiar with this group. The two hackberry species you'll want to familiarize yourself with are desert hackberry (Celtis pallida) and netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata). The former is more common and can generally be found in more arid habitats, while you may have better luck finding the latter along streams. Desert hackberry hosts a single species of psyllid, Leuronota maculata (below), though it shouldn't be overlooked. The species can become quite abundant on its host and can often be seen swaying its abdomen from side to side.

Netleaf hackberry, in contrast, is host to many species of psyllids, most of which are gall-inducers. The galls are indeed the easiest way to identify psyllid presence on netleaf hackberry, though if you're lucky you may be able to find adults as well

On the petioles you will find large galls of Pachypsylla venusta (above, left), a common species throughout North America. On the buds on the stem you will find distinctly hairy white galls which belong to Pachypsylla pallida (above, middle), a rarer and primarily western species. And on the leaves you will find blister galls in extremely dense numbers, belonging to Pachypsylla celtidisvesicula (above, right). It is interesting to note that the nipple-gall maker Pachypsylla celtidismamma as well as other eastern leaf-gall species are entirely absent from southern Arizona; what this means is that adult Pachypsylla can be reliably identified to species level in this region, whereas they can't be in the eastern USA (as all adult leaf-gallers look identical). It might also be interesting to note that the both the blister galls and the blister gall psyllid adults of Arizona look slightly different than those found in the Eastern USA, but for the time being these are regarded as a single species. Future work may prove them to be distinct. The adults of the hairy bud gall psyllid (below, left) and blister gall psyllid (below, right) are easily distinguished and are shown below.

If you are very lucky you may find, in addition to the galls outlined above, small white lerps on hackberry leaves. These belong to the Sugarberry Psyllid Tetragonocephala flava, an attractive southern species. Both the lerps and adult are shown below.

Image credits: left: © Leonardo Hernández Escudero, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Right: © Catherine C. Galley, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

Part 5: Other species on miscellaneous low elevation plants

Ambrosia monogyra is a common plant along washes and it is very regularly densely covered with interesting floral-like galls (below, middle). The inducer of these galls remained a mystery until last year when I determined it to be the psyllid Craspedolepta lapsus (below, left), a species previously described from Texas. I found adults in autumn, but you may be able to find nymphs inside the galls in summer.

Calinda is another gall-inducing psyllid, responsible for flower galls on Baccharis. Unlike the previous species, the galls are difficult to spot, but sweeping the plants can often produce adults. On Desert Broom in particular you will find Calinda longistylus (above, right), but a few additional Calinda may be found in Arizona as well.

Mid and high-elevation species

One thing you might have noticed about Arizona is that it can get kind of hot, and lurking about the desert finding tiny bugs past noon isn't for everyone. Luckily, a number of interesting species can be found in the mountains after a successful morning of finding all of the aforementioned species.

Part 1: Rosewood psyllids

Arizona rosewood (Vauquelinia californica) is an interesting shrubby tree that you'll find at low to mid elevations in southern Arizona; in the Santa Catalina Mountains you shouldn't have trouble finding it growing by many pulloffs on the side of the highway, starting around Molino Canyon Vista and continuing up to the bend just before Bear Canyon. The psyllid fauna of this plant, previously unrecorded, is a subject of ongoing research by me. 2 species are confirmed for the host and a third is expected. All of the species belong to the Arizona endemic genus Metatrioza (the species Neotriozella hirsuta is currently misplaced based on unpublished data).

Left, Metatrioza neotriozella. Right, "Neotriozella" hirsuta

Part 2: Willow psyllids

In riparian situations you will find willows, and where there are willows there are psyllids. Willows (Salix) are the most commonly used host plant for psyllids in North America, with dozens of species associated with the plant. As such, identification can be difficult.

Goodding's Willow (Salix gooddingii) is the most commonly observed willow in southern Arizona, and on it you will find Bactericera minuta (above, left), a psyllid easily recognized by the narrow black dorsal margin of the wing. Both this host and its psyllid can be found at lower elevation riparian areas, but at higher elevations a much more diverse selection of willows yields a more diverse selection of psyllids. Bactericera californica (above, middle) is one such species, and fairly rare. Much more common are Cacopsylla spp. (above, right), a genus which includes many similar species which feed on willow. Adults of this genus are most common on their host March-May, after which they often migrate to coniferous trees to overwinter.

Part 3: Sumac psyllids

Sumacs (Rhus) are found throughout North America and are a typical host for the psyllid genus Calophya. Members of this genus are found throughout the country, with a few interesting species found in Arizona. Expect a full article from me detailing the Calophya of North America including Mexico very soon.

Evergreen sumac only becomes common in mountains south of Tucson, and on it occurs the psyllid Calophya minuta (above, left), a rare species known only from Arizona and Texas. The more common species of sumac throughout the rest of the state is Rhus aromatica, which is the host plant for at least 5 Calophya species in western North America. Of these, at least 2 have been observed in Arizona: Calophya aromatica, and a Calophya sp. nr. dubia (above, right, previously not recorded from the state). Future collecting and observing on this host plant may reveal the presence of additional species.

Part 4: Manzanita and Madrone psyllids

Over 60 species of manzanita are found in California, on which there are numerous psyllids, but Arizona isn't California. Nonetheless, Arizona's mid-elevation chaparral habitats have a healthy supply of mostly Pointleaf Manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens), on which you may be able to find the common manzanita psyllid Neophyllura arctostaphyli (below, left). California's more unique manzanita psyllids appear to be absent from Arizona.

Madrone Psyllids belong to the same genus but are easily recognized by their highly sinuate wing veins and well, their preference for madrones. Three madrone psyllids are found in North America, all geographically distinct, with one species in the PNW, one species in Mexico, and finally one species in southeast Arizona. This species, Neophyllura arbuticola (above, right) is restricted to Arbutus arizonica. So far it is only known from the Chiricahuas, Huachucas, and Santa Ritas; attempts to find it in the Santa Catalina Mountains have been unsuccesful.

Part 5: Ceanothus psyllids

Ceanothus is an extremely diverse genus of plants in California and is host to over a dozen species of psyllids, but once again, Arizona isn't California. Only a fraction of California's Ceanothus and Ceanothus psyllid diversity crosses over into Arizona, however, Ceanothus psyllids are wonderful and Arizona's psyllid fauna does include one unique species. Fendler's Ceanothus is common in ponderosa pine forests at higher elevation and all psyllids detailed here were found on that plant, but studies of additional species of Ceanothus in Arizona may yield additional species of psyllids.

Ceanothia ceanothi is, as the name implies, the Ceanothus psyllid. It is the most common Ceanothus psyllid in western North America, and one of the plainer species. Ceanothia essigii (above, right), in contrast, has distinctly blackened wings, and until my discovery of the species in the Santa Catalina Mountains was considered a California endemic.

Euglyptoneura robusta (above, left) is a widespread but extremely beautiful species which is also found on Ceanothus. Nyctiphalerus propinquus (above, right) is another attractive species, and is essentially the sky island equivalent of the Californian species Nyctiphalerus vermiculosus. it is not unusual to find multiple species of Ceanothus psyllids living together on the same plants.

Part 6: Purshia and Cercocarpus psyllids

The subfamily Dryadoideae in the Rosaceae contains a couple of closely related plant genera, the cliffroses (Purshia) and the mountain mahoganies (Cercocarpus). In western North America these plants serve as hosts for a great many species of psyllids, most of which have now been referred to the genus Purshivora. Once again, the bulk of psyllid diversity surrounding these plants is endemic to California, but a number of species occur in Arizona as well and likely even more await discovery. In the Santa Catalina Mountains, look for these plants to start becoming more common beyond Windy Point.

On Cercocarpus you may find Purshivora insignita (above, left), a species whose presence may also be recognized by its distinctive leaf-curl galls. A similar species, Purshivora coryli (above, middle), can be found on Purshia. Cacopsylla nana (above, right) probably also belongs to the genus Purshivora, and I have found it on Cercocarpus. This species, unlike the others, is apparently an Arizona endemic, with a distinct forewing pattern that makes it easy to identify.

Part 7: Alder psyllids

As you reach the highest elevations you'll find massive alder trees, especially Arizona alder. Several species of psyllids are found on alder throughout the country, one of which, Psylla alni americana (below), is known from Arizona.

Rare Stuff

So you've found all of the above species and you want more? Here's a few additional species to keep your eyes open for, if you can find them.

So here's the thing: I've found Trioza mexicana (above, left) multiple times in the Santa Catalina Mountains, on various plants: Ribes pinetorium, mananita, box elder, douglas fir; however, none of these things are likely to be the host plant. All we really know for sure about it is that it is a high elevation species, observed from 7000-9000 feet, but not knowing the host plant makes it a very difficult species to track. On the other end of the spectrum is Heteropsylla intermedia (above, right). The hostplant of this species is known: Mimosa, apparently Mimosa aculeaticarpa in Arizona. Until recently this species was known only from Mexico, now also known from a single record from Arizona and a single record from Texas. I found the Arizona specimen at the Bug Spring Trailhead in the Santa Catalina Mountains - if you go looking for one, good luck!

Posted on מאי 03, 2023 06:38 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

אפריל 25, 2023

Notes on some Parthenicus species observed in the Tucson area (Hemiptera: Miridae)

Parthenicus are some of the more commonly observed plant bugs in the sonoran desert, and some of the most diverse. They readily come to lights, and I have observed a number of distinct species around Tucson, although attempts to identify most of them have not been successful. I do think it might be useful to present those species here, and maybe we'll be able to apply names to them some day. Knight seperates the genus into 3 groups, but group 2 and 3 aren't particularly distinct from each other in my opinion. I've ordered the species here based on the color of the membrane, which is a fairly consistent character.

1. Parthenicus pictus

A relatively common and easily identified species. Present in Tucson as well as higher elevations in the mountains; its host plant is a mystery.

2. Parthenicus covilleae

A relatively common desert species associated with creosote bush. Another species, P. rufusculus, is very similar, refer to notes on bugguide page for disambiguation. I've never personally seen P. rufusculus but it is also probably in the area.

3. Parthenicus micans

Appears to be an uncommon species, I've encountered it just twice in Tucson.

4. "Parthenicus sp. A"

A yet-unidentifed species which I've encountered just once in Tucson, in May. It is allied to the above two species in having the membrane dark and the antennae unspotted, but the cuneus is distinctly not red and the coreum, clavus, scutellum, pronotum and head are all uniformly pallid.

5. "Parthenicus sp. H"

Another dark-membraned species allied to the above, but with the hind femora mostly pale and with some dark setae along the edge of the clavus.

6. Parthenicus rufivenosus

An uncommon but distinctly colored species, and a species most likely to be confused with other common green mirid genera such as Orthotylus, but note the red veins on the membrane. A few observations on "Acacia"-like plants, which could be the hostplant.

7. Parthenicus deleticus

I'm not positive of this ID, but this is the current interpretation of these attractive mirids with spotted membranes. An uncommon species.

8. "Parthenicus sp. F"

Allied to the above and perhaps conspecific, but with distinctly different pronotum and scutellum, corium heavily marked with dark areas, and antennae segment 2 with numerous conspicuous dark spots. I have seen this species once, on Ambrosia monogyra in October.

9. "Parthenicus sp. B"

A pale species with a pale membrane which is not heavily spotted as it is in the previous 2 species (excluding the two large dark marginal spots). I've seen this species in May in Tucson.

10. "Parthenicus sp. C"

A yellowish species similar to the above which I've observed a few times in Tucson and the surrounding mountains. The marginal spots on the membrane are extremely reduced, especially the first pair.

11. "Parthenicus sp. E"

Whatever this species is, I have also observed it (or a species identical to it) in southern California as well as Tucson. Another pale species with a pale membrane with 2 dark marginal dots, but with the base of the corium and the scutellum darkened, and the apex of the corium and cuneus with red flecks. I feel like this one should be identifiable...

12. "Parthenicus sp. G"

A somewhat common species at lights at low elevations in the santa catalina mountains, also present in Tucson. The second marginal spot on the membrane is very large, such that when the wings are at rest the spot from the left wing and right wing appear to make a single large confluent apical spot. Occasionally I've encountered individuals with the corium more or less covered in tiny red spots but otherwise identical, I am not considering these forms to be a distinct species for now (but you never know with these)

This is just scratching the surface of Tucson Parthenicus, and I've excluded a few species I've seen for various reasons. Undoubtedly this list will grow in the future, but hopefully we can figure out what they are eventually.

Posted on אפריל 25, 2023 01:08 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 6 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

אפריל 06, 2023

Fulgoridae Africa: a guide to the african lanternfly fauna

Hi everyone. To progress the general understanding of lanternflies, I have put together a guide on the African lanternfly fauna. While it is still in a rudimentary state, I have consolidated all references available to me and provided images and descriptions for over 60% of the described fauna. Expect additional images, descriptions, keys, and identification notes in future updates. A cleaner, pdf version of this guide will be made if there is enough interest.

The guide can be found here:

Excerpt: "In 1994 Thierry Porion published Fulgoridae 1, an illustrated catalogue of the new world Fulgoride. Two years later saw the publication of Fulgoridae 2, covering the Asian species. Now over 25 years since those publications, there still remains no comprehensive illustrated reference on the African species. This guide aims to temporarily fill that void until a more complete work is published.

All described continental African Fulgoridae are included, excluding the South African Orgeriine-like subfamilies Lyncidinae and Strongtlodematinae which are treated comprehensively by Fennah 1962 and 1967. The fauna of Madagascar, which is covered in detail in Constant 2004 and 2014, is also not treated here. 108 species in total are listed, of which photos or illustrations have been provided for 66 of them (over 60%) and descriptions are provided for 83 (over 75%). A rough distribution is given for 99 species, but keep in mind that these distributions are influenced by historical collecting bias and are likely incomplete."

If you have any questions, comments, suggestions, improvements, or feedback relating to this guide, or if you wish to subscribe to updates, you may do so by responding to this journal post.

Posted on אפריל 06, 2023 10:20 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 17 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

מרץ 27, 2023

Notes on the identity of Acmonia aegrota and Acmonia spilota, two Fulgorids from South America

The above image from Porion 1994, labeled Acmonia aegrota, depicts a beautiful and unique species, quite different from other Acmonia. It is also not Acmonia aegrota.

Porion 1994, while being a monumental work in terms of new world Fulgoridae, is not without errors. This post seeks to correct one of them to help progress the understanding of this group of insects

Acmonia aegrota was described from Colombia in 1860 by Gerstaecker. The original description, translated to english, includes: "elytra ... almost translucent yellowish green... the basal third part of the broad anterior margin bright red.... The hindwings are ... red over the smaller basal half, otherwise light smoky brown...". Gerstaecker includes the folloing illustration of this species:

While the color characters aren't possible to assess from a black and white illustration, it becomes clear that Gerstaecker's description and illustration of Acmonia aegrota is not in agreement with Porion's interpretation.

A specimen in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin is labeled Acmonia aegrota, and agrees in all respects with Gerstaecker's description. This is the correct interpration of the species:

The question then becomes, if the species pictured in Porion 1994 is not Acmonia aegrota, what is it? Costa Lima 1942, in Insetos de Brasil, helps provide an answer, with this image labeled Acmonia maculata:

Gerstaecker again incudes a description of Acmonia maculata. Translated to english, "head, thorax, and elytra ochraceous-black variegated... [hind]wings black brown, base pale blue-marked, a small hyaline spot". Metcalf 1947 includes Acmonia maculata as a synonym of Acmonia spilota, and several specimens of Acmonia spilota are again present in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin:

Based on these things, the correct interpretation of Acmonia aegrota sensu Porion 1994 should be Acmonia spilota.

Posted on מרץ 27, 2023 11:09 לפנה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

מרץ 21, 2023

The Fulgoridae of South Africa: the subfamilies Strongylodematinae and Lyncidinae

Capenopsis from South Africa © Gigi Laidler, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

The Fulgoridae of South Africa is made up of 4 components, the most unique and unusual of which is a group of tiny brachypterous species which resemble (and were formerly treated as) Orgeriine Dictyopharids. These species, now referred to the Fulgorid subfamilies Strongylodematinae and Lyncidinae, are almost entirely endemic to South Africa, with the exception of a single species described from the island of Mayotte north of Madagascar. That species is not treated here.

Fennah (1962, 1967) described and illustrated most of the species, and an additional species was described by Emeljanov 2007. The following illustrations are taken from those publications and reorganized for convenience. The original publications should be consulted for complete descriptions.

Risius gibbus Fennah, 1967

Risius astyanax Fennah, 1967

Risius palamedes Fennah, 1967

Risius spurcus Stål, 1859

Risius patroclus Fennah, 1967

Risius darwini Fennah, 1962

Risius limonias Fennah, 1967

Risius omega Fennah, 1967

Risius porrectus Fennah, 1967

Risius belona Fennah, 1967

Capenopsis minos Fennah, 1962

Capenopsis horvathi Melichar, 1912

Capenopsis krameri Synave, 1969

Capocles podlipaevi Emeljanov, 2007

Capocles socrates (Fennah, 1967) type species

Codon adrastus Fennah, 1967

Codon praestana Fennah, 1962

Strongylodemas breviceps Fennah, 1962

Strongylodemas circulare Stål, 1855 type species

Strongylodemas retarius Fennah, 1967

Tecmar pausanias Fennah, 1962

Posted on מרץ 21, 2023 12:29 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

מרץ 17, 2023

Very preliminary notes on the Zanna of Africa with photos of 17 species

Zanna is a genus of large planthoppers found throughout Africa and Asia. In Africa, Zanna is the most commonly encountered genus of Fulgorids (and will probably remain so until the genus is inevitably removed from the family Fulgoridae). 24 species are known from Africa, but the genus is in major need of a modern revision. In absence of that, the images here from the entomology collection at the NHM London are meant to present an introduction to the genus in Africa and its complexities, but are not meant to be diagnostic. Only 17/24 species are pictured, and other factors such as the shape of the cephalic process in lateral view, the range, and the characters detailed in the original descriptions should also be considered when attempting to identify African Zanna, . A key to the genus does not exist, and identification to species level of most Zanna is discouraged until a more complete understanding of the genus can be made.

Species with hindwings completely black

Zanna tenebrosa (Fabricius, 1775) (including as a synonym Zanna madagascarensis, sometimes treated as a distinct species)

Zanna natalensis Distant, 1893 (note: this species may have been synonomized with tenebrosa, but I cannot find the source of this if it is true)

Zanna flammea (Linné, 1763)

Zanna bacula (Gerstaecker, 1895)

Species with hindwings black basally, lighter apically

Zanna pustulosa Gerstaecker, 1873

Zanna rendalli Distant, 1905

Zanna wroughtoni Distant, 1907

Zanna basibrunnea (Schmidt, 1906)

Species with hindwings black but with a pale marking on basal half

Zanna clavaticeps Karsch, 1890

Zanna turrita Gerstaecker, 1895

Zanna noduligera Melichar, 1908

Species with hindwings pale

Zanna intricata Walker, 1858

Zanna westwoodi Metcalf, 1947

Zanna punctata (Olivier, 1791)

Zanna ascendens Lallemand, 1959

Zanna beieri Lallemand, 1959

Zanna capensis Lallemand, 1966

Additional species not pictured here

Zanna angolana Lallemand, 1959
Zanna bouriezi Lallemand, 1959
Zanna chopardi Lallemand, 1942
Zanna ornata Melichar, 1908
Zanna pauliani (Lallemand, 1950)
Zanna schweizeri Schmidt, 1906
Zanna soni Lallemand, 1959

Posted on מרץ 17, 2023 03:42 לפנה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 14 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

מרץ 02, 2023

Notes on the identity of Hariola claryi Audibert, Porion & Nagai, 2016, a lanternfly from New Guinea

In 2016 Audibert, Porion, & Nagai described a new species of Hariola from New Guinea. The new species resembles the type species of Hariola by reference to the tegmen coloration, but the shape of the cephalic process differs dramatically, and the authors did not explain the placement of this species in the genus Hariola. Indeed, many genera from New Guinea are similarly colored and nothing in the description of the species implies that the species was compared with other New Guinea genera, which are largely distinguished by the shape of the cephalic process. Based on the shape of the cephalic process, I posit that the species is correctly placed in the genus Ombro, and as the authors did not compare their species with this genus it is likely that Hariola claryi is synonymous with Ombro vindemitor Fennah 1977.

Left: Hariola tiarata, type species. Right: Hariola claryi

Hariola tiarata, cephalic process

Left: Hariola claryi cephalic process. Right: Ombro vindemitor cephalic process, illustration by Fennah 1977

Left: Hariola claryi. Right: Ombro vindemitor, illustration by Fennah 1977

Posted on מרץ 02, 2023 10:33 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

פברואר 01, 2023

Additions to the Psylloidea of Mexico: Bactericera maculipennis

I report here the first record of Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford, 1910) from Mexico, based on an iNaturalist observation from Ensenada, Baja California. The species, which feeds on various plants in the family Convolvulaceae, was previously known from the western USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Utah) and western Canada (Alberta). Its occurrence in northern Mexico was expected.

The addition brings the number of psylloidea species reported from Mexico to 138.

Species recognition:

Bactericera maculipennis from Los Angeles county, CA. Photo by Jesse Rorabaugh

Bactericera maculipennis may be recognized by its typically Triozid wing venation (vein R+M+Cu trifurcating into veins R, M, and Cu) in addition to the highly angulate wings, large and unusually-shaped cubital cell, and by its wing maculation. Very few triozid species in North America have maculate wings, with the most similar Mexican species being Leuronota inusitata. Both species are illustrated below.

Wings of Triozidae. Above: Leuronota inusitata. Below: Bactericera maculipennis. Images from Tuthill 1943, 1945.

Part of an ungoing series on Mexican Psylloidea. More:

Part 1: a checklist of species

Posted on פברואר 01, 2023 11:08 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

ינואר 24, 2023

PSYLLOIDEA OF MEXICO Part 1: A checklist of species

The jumping plant lice of Mexico are relatively poorly known. In his monograph of Psylloidea of the new world, Crawford (1914) described less than 20 species from Mexico, and three decades later the knowledge of Mexican Psylloidea had barely advanced with Caldwell's preliminary list of Mexican species (1941) including just under 40 species. The next few years would see a bit of activity, with Tuthill describing 19 new Mexican species and Caldwell another 25 in the period from 1941-1945. By 1996, 116 species were recorded from the country (Yang & Miller 1996). This was the last major checklist for the region, and very few new species have been described since then.

I report here 137 species, an increase of 21 species from Yang & Miller's list. Some of these represent recent foreign introductions such as the Australian Red Gum Lerp Psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei), some represent recently described endemic species, and others represent new Mexican records of species previously known from the USA or elsewhere supported by iNaturalist data but not officially documented elsewhere. At least one species, Kuwayama longipennis Tuthill 1945, was absent from Yang & Miller's list despite being described from Mexico decades earlier. Additionally, the taxonomy of Psylloidea has changed significantly in the past several decades and this new checklist reflects those changes.

I estimate the number of species reported is probably less than half of the true diversity present in the country and future study should greatly increase this number. Many species reported from Southern Arizona and Texas in particular are likely to occur in parts of Northern Mexico, several Guatemalan species are expected in Southern Mexico, and undoubtedly many undescribed species occur throughout the country. Species expected from the country but not recorded are not included, but a single undescribed species is included on this list.

Much work must be done to fully understand the Mexican species. Unfortunately, many of the species of the region are poorly described (especially Caldwell's species), and several species are currently placed in incorrect genera. Despite this, in the upcoming parts of this series I will attempt to relay the current knowledge regarding the Mexican species with the hopes of advancing the understanding of Mexican Psylloidea in addition to promoting an interest in the species from the country.

ᵃ = Species not listed in Yang & Mitter's (1996) checklist
ᵇ = Species not native to Mexico




ᵃAphalara ortegae Burckhardt, Cort & Queiroz, 2020
ᵃAphalara persicaria Caldwell, 1937
Aphalara simila Caldwell, 1937
Craspedolepta caudata (Crawford, 1914)
Craspedolepta numerica (Caldwell, 1941)
Craspedolepta nupera (Van Duzee, 1923)
Craspedolepta veaziei (Patch, 1911)
Hodkinsonia montana (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)


ᵇBlastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, 1985
ᵃᵇCtenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890)
ᵃᵇCtenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997
ᵃᵇGlycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964


Syncoptozus mexicanus Hodkinson, 1990


ᵃPseudophacopteron sp. n.


Ameroscena mexicana Burckhardt & Lauterer, 1989


Calophya dicksoni Jensen, 1957
ᵃᵇCalophya schini Tuthill, 1959
ᵃCalophya spondiadis Burckhardt & Mendez, 2016



Epicarsa corniculata Crawford, 1911
Paracarsidara dugesii (Löw, 1886)
Paracarsidara gigantea (Crawford, 1911)
Paracarsidara mexicana (Crawford, 1911)


Synoza floccosa Ferris, 1928
Synoza pulchra Laing, 1923


ᵃPachypsylla celtidisasterisca Riley, 1890
ᵃPachypsylla celtidismamma (Riley, 1875)
ᵃPachypsylla pallida Patch, 1912
Pachypsylla tropicala Caldwell, 1944
ᵃPachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861)
Tetragonocephala flava Crawford, 1914



ᵃᵇEuphyllura olivina (Costa, 1839) (tentatively listed based on iNaturalist observation)


Diclidophlebia tuxtlaensis (Conconi, 1972)
ᵃLivia caricis Crawford, 1914
Livia mexicana Caldwell, 1944


Neophyllura mexicana (Jensen, 1952)


Mastigimas ernstii (Schwarz, 1899)
Mastigimas schwarzi (Tuthill, 1945)



ᵇAcizzia uncatoides (Ferris & Klyver, 1932)


Aphalaroida inermis Crawford, 1914
Aphalaroida lysilomae Hodkinson, 1991
Aphalaroida pithecolobia Crawford, 1914
Aphalaroida rauca Hodkinson, 1991
Freysuila dugesii Aleman, 1887


Caradocia delongi Caldwell, 1944
Euceropsylla minuticona (Crawford, 1914)
Euceropsylla orizabensis (Crawford, 1914)
Heteropsylla aurantiaca Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla boquetensis (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)
Heteropsylla clavata Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla crawfordi Enderlein, 1918
Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla didubiata Caldwell, 1944
Heteropsylla flexuosa Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla forcipata Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla fusca Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla huasachae Caldwell, 1941
Heteropsylla intermedia Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla mexicana Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla mimosae Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla muricata Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla nebulosa Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla propinqua Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla texana Crawford, 1914
Mitrapsylla albalineata Crawford, 1914
ᵃMitrapsylla cf. surinamensis (Šulc, 1914)
Mitrapsylla cubana Crawford, 1914
Mitrapsylla deserata Caldwell, 1944
Telmapsylla lagunculariae (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)


ᵃᵇDiaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908


Katacephala arcuata Crawford, 1914
Katacephala cinctata Hodkinson, 1991
Katacephala grandiceps Crawford, 1914


Apsyllopsis mexicana (Crawford, 1914)
Euphalerus fasciatus Laing, 1923
Euphalerus gallicolus Ferris, 1928
Euphalerus nidifex Schwarz, 1904


Platycorypha amabilis (Caldwell, 1947)
Platycorypha magnifrons (Crawford, 1914)
Platycorypha princeps Tuthill, 1945


Cacopsylla "americana" (Crawford, 1914) (complex of species, no way to know what this record refers to)
"Cacopsylla" nana (Tuthill, 1938) (I suggest this species properly belongs in Purshivora)

Psyllidae incertae sedis

"Arytaina" virgina Caldwell, 1944 (impossible to know what genus this species should be referred to)
"Psylla" minutiforma Caldwell, 1944 (male genitalia suggests Amorphicola)


Bactericera antennata (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera bifurca (Tuthill, 1944)
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc, 1909)
Bactericera dubia (Tuthill, 1943)
Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera minuta (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera rubra (Tuthill, 1939)
Baeoalitriozus diospyri (Ashmead, 1881)
Calinda collaris (Crawford, 1910)
ᵃCalinda graciliforceps Olivares & Burckhardt, 1997
ᵃCalinda longicaudata Olivares & Burckhardt, 1997
Calinda proximata (Crawford, 1911)
Ceropsylla sideroxyli Riley, 1885
Kuwayama elongagena (Caldwell, 1941)
Kuwayama hyalina Caldwell, 1944
Kuwayama lateralis Caldwell, 1944
ᵃKuwayama longipennis Tuthill 1945
Kuwayama medicaginis (Crawford, 1910)
Kuwayama mexicana Caldwell, 1944
Kuwayama oaxacenis (Crawford, 1911)
Kuwayama plummeri (Caldwell, 1944)
Kuwayama striata Caldwell, 1944
Leuronota inusitata (Tuthill, 1944)
Leuronota maculata (Crawford, 1910)
Leuronota maritima Tuthill, 1944
Leuronota michoacana Ferris, 1928
Trichochermes magna (Laing, 1923)
ᵃᵇTrioza adventicia Tuthill, 1952 (tentatively listed based on iNaturalist observation)
ᵃTrioza aguacate Hollis & Martin, 1997
Trioza albifrons Crawford, 1910
Trioza anceps Tuthill, 1944
Trioza apartata Caldwell, 1944
Trioza bella Tuthill, 1944
Trioza dampfi Tuthill, 1944
Trioza discrepans (Tuthill, 1945)
Trioza epiphitatae Caldwell, 1944
Trioza grandipennis Tuthill, 1944
Trioza hildagoensis Caldwell, 1944
Trioza incidata Tuthill, 1945
Trioza longigenae Tuthill, 1945
Trioza magnoliae (Ashmead, 1881)
Trioza mexicana Crawford, 1911
Trioza nigriconus Tuthill, 1944
Trioza nigriscutum Tuthill, 1945
Trioza psyllihabitus Tuthill, 1945
Trioza pulchra (Tuthill, 1945)
Trioza rhinosa Caldwell, 1944
Trioza rugosata Caldwell, 1944
Trioza russellae Tuthill, 1944
Trioza stroma Caldwell, 1944
Trioza thoracica Caldwell, 1941
Trioza zogoda Caldwell, 1944
Triozoida formiciformis (Caldwell, 1944)
Triozoida limbata (Enderlein, 1918)
Triozoida prima (Tuthill, 1945)

Posted on ינואר 24, 2023 06:29 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

נובמבר 21, 2022

First records of the psyllid Heteropsylla intermedia in the USA

Several years ago I found an unusual psyllid on Catclaw Mimosa (Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera) in the Santa Catalina Mountains:

At the time I tried to attribute this psyllid to a possibly undescribed species of Cacopsylla (what would be considered Purshivora today), but this was clearly not quite right. An option I had not considered at all was Heteropsylla, a genus whose US representation includes a number of species recognizable by their lack of genal cones, such as the common mesquite psyllid Heteropsylla texana:

However, not all Heteropsylla lack genal cones, and several species in Mexico do have quite prominent genal cones. The Heteropsylla distincta group in particular includes a number of species with both prominent genal cones and maculated forewings.

Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis 1992 describe and illustrate Heteropsylla intermedia. The wing maculation is fairly distinct, lacking both the dark streak on the apex of Rs and the dark spot on Cu1b that is present in Heteropsylla texana. The dark marking that extends from M1+2 to Cu1a is similar to that in the Mexican species Heteropsylla nebulosa and H. muricata, but the overall wing maculation is much less extensive than in those species.

Previously, this species had only been known from Mexico, where it was collected on Mimosa ?albida.

In October 2022, iNaturalist user Joe Girgente (joseph92) made another observation of this psyllid in Lubbock, Texas:

© Joe Girgente, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

With these two records, the known range of Heteropsylla intermedia is expanded to include the southern USA in addition to Mexico. This claim is made with the caveat that as neither of the two recorded specimens were collected, there is a nonzero possibility that the USA records could represent an undescribed species similar to but geographically distinct from Heteropsylla intermedia. Future collecting of psyllids on Mimosa in the southern USA will undoubtedly resolve this uncertainty.

Posted on נובמבר 21, 2022 01:50 אחה"צ by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 תגובות | הוספת תגובה