דצמבר 4, 2023

Guides to Lady Beetles (Coccinellidae) of the World

Lady Beetles, Ladybugs, or Ladybirds are a diverse and iconic group of beetles making up the family Coccinellidae. Over 6000 species are known globally and are renowned for their striking patterning and colouring. With so many unique forms, it is no surprise that these beetles have become the subject of much study throughout the generations, with research continuing to this day!

I became infatuated with these little critters over the summer and tried to find as much information as I could on them. During my research, something became incredibly clear, all these sites, PDFs, and research papers were all over the place! So, I decided to compile these resources into one easy-to-access location, this journal post. Consider this your one-stop-stop for everything lady beetle!

This will be an ongoing project and I hope to get community input and feedback on it. If you have an accessible resource you'd like to contribute, please leave a comment below or message me privately. I'll see if I can add it here.

And of course, a big thank you to @silversea_starsong for his feedback and expertise and to @borisb for additional suggestions! This post wouldn't have been possible without them!

What is a Lady Beetle?

While defining this family under a single umbrella is difficult, most species generally share a small set of features. One such example is their body structure, with convex elytra and flat underside, forming a dome. The pronotum covers a portion of the head and the antennae are short, usually no longer than the head is wide. They are also club-shaped.

There is overlap with other groups of beetles however, so the best way to understand what is and isn’t a lady beetle is to familiarise yourself with the different species.

Principles of Identification

Lady Beetle identification in the field often relies on a few simple principles.

A) Variability
Lady beetles each have a distinctive pattern, but the extent of such patterns can vary. These extents may be either, 'lighter', with smaller and sometimes missing spots or 'darker', with larger and sometimes merged spots. However, the overall pattern itself retains the same basic "blueprint" while genetic variation in pigmentation and other factors create natural variation.

Some species are more variable than others. Known variations are discussed in the guides.

Figure a) lighter and darker morphs of Harmonia axyridis.

B) Morphology
The hardened wing covers, the elytra, protect the flight wings and are strikingly coloured and patterned. Their markings are used to determine which species it is. Equally important but far less flashy are the pronotum and head. Together, the features of these three body regions guide identification, so be sure to get a good view of them.

In more specific cases, the underside and leg colouration, overall shape, and antennae may be required to accurately assess the species.

Figure b) parts of a lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata.

C) Life Cycle
The life cycle of lady beetles can be divided into four stages; egg, larva, pupa, and finally adult. As with adults, the larval and pupal stage may be identified by their appearance, though information on characteristic features of these life stages remain unknown for many species.

After a lady beetle emerges from the pupa, it enters the teneral stage, a short period when its body is soft, lightly coloured, and mostly unpatterned. Any damage sustained to the beetle during these first few hours can result in permanent bruising and deformities. This is visible on the elytra as discolouration or scratches which can be mistaken for actual patterning. However, they are irregular and are not mirrored on each elytron (singular elytra).

Figure c) the life cycle of Cheilomenes sexmaculata.

D) Food and Host Plants
Most lady beetles are predatory and take advantage of local infestations of soft-bodied insects like aphids, scale insects, and mealybugs. These infestations are sporadic and concentrated on specific plants. As such, the relationship between plants and most lady beetles comes down to whether these soft-bodied prey items are present. In other words, lady beetles associate with their prey species rather than the plant itself. Some groups feed on mildew and fungi while others are herbivorous, feeding on specific host plants.

Eggs are laid on preferred host plants so knowing the relation between the lady beetle and plant species could strengthen larval and pupal identification.

Getting Started

If you're just beginning your Lady Beetle identification journey, there are many resources to help get you started. The Lost Ladybug project for instance, is an initiative to collect distribution data on lady beetles. It offers easy-to-understand information on identification, finding lady beetles, ecology, and more. I'd recommend taking a look at these articles:
How to Find, Collect, and Photograph Ladybugs
Ladybug Learning
Identification Tools

Also available is the Ladybug Identification Guide from Discover Life. Just fill in a few boxes about the appearance of the beetle and press one of the 'search' buttons on the right. A few suggested species will then appear on the left with more information. The more category boxes you fill in, the more precise the suggestions will be.

Consider joining the Ladybird Beetles of the World project here on iNaturalist. It's a great way to meet identifiers and share your observations.

A Word of Advice

Identification from external features is not always possible as some species can look the same. In these cases, the specimen is examined under a microscope and characteristics such as the male genitalia are used to determine the species. This is because the structure of the genitalia is unique to each species and does not vary within them.

This is the limitation of photo identification. When you encounter this situation on iNaturalist, use a more broad ID, like one to the genus, tribe, subfamily, etc.


Giorgi, A. and Vandenberg, N. (2009, 9 November). Coccinellidae. Lady beetles, Ladybird beetles, Ladybugs. The Tree of Life Web Project

Bartlett, T. (2004, 16 February). Family Coccinellidae - Lady Beetles. BugGuide.

All About Ladybugs. The Lost Ladybug Project.

Schuh. M. (2022). Lady beetles. The University of Minnesota Extension.

Kawakami. Y. and Yamazaki. K. (2015, January) Increase in dark morphs and decrease in size during a range extension of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). European Journal of Entomology.

General Guides

Notice: Resources are in English unless mentioned otherwise. Taxonomy (especially in older articles) may be outdated.

North America

BugGuide - Family Coccinellidae - Lady Beetles

  • Parameters: Species of America North of Mexico.
  • Information: Identification, range, habitat, lifestyle, remarks, and more. Uses photographs and illustrations.
  • Navigation: Scroll through different genera or use 'search'. Most information on a species page is found under 'info'.
  • Type: Website, actively worked on.
  • Notes: Includes forum discussions.

The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of America North of Mexico

  • Parameters: Species of America North of Mexico.
  • Information: Identification, range, discussion, and more. Uses illustrations exclusively.
  • Navigation: Table of contents or use 'search inside' to find scientific names.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1985, accessible as an ebook.
  • Notes: BugGuide includes much of the same information and is more accessible.

The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of Bermuda

  • Parameters: Species of Bermuda.
  • Information: Identification, range, discussion, and more. Uses illustrations exclusively.
  • Navigation: Table of contents or use 'search inside' to find scientific names.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1990, accessible as an ebook.

Coleoptera Coccinellidae - Gallery

  • Parameters: Select species of North America.
  • Information: Uses photographs, pinned specimens.
  • Navigation: Use 'view genera gallery' or 'view dorsal gallery'.
  • Type: Website.
  • Notes: Pinned specimens often appear darkened and discoloured. This occurs postmortem.

Lady Beetles of the Northwest Territories

  • Parameters: Species of the Northwest Territories.
  • Information: General information, identification, habitat, diet, and distribution. Uses photographs and illustrations.
  • Navigation: See index.
  • Type: Field guide, published 2018. In English and French.

Key to lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Saskatchewan

  • Parameters: Species of Saskatchewan.
  • Information: General information, identification, habitat, diet, and distribution.
  • Navigation: See legend at the end.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2013.

La familia Coccinellidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) y su potencial como agentes de control biológico de Melanaphis sacchari (Zehtner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

  • Parameters: Predators of Melanaphis sacchari
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and confusion species. Used photos.
  • Navigation: See table of contents.
  • Type Research paper, published 2020. In Spanish and English.

South America

Coccinellidea de Argentina

  • Parameters: Species of South America.
  • Information: Identification, range, notes, and more. Uses photographs.
  • Navigation: Species split by country they occur and by subfamily. Press on flags to view different countries.
  • Type: Website, actively worked on; see 'news' section. In Spanish.


  • Parameters: Species of Brazil.
  • Information: Labeled photos and general information on lady beetles.
  • Navigation: “Galeria” takes you to specimen photos.
  • Type: Website


Coccinellidae - Ladybirds - NatureSpot

  • Parameters: Species of Leicestershire and Rutland, UK.
  • Information: Identification, habitat, life history, and more. Uses photographs.
  • Navigation: Pressing on a photo takes you to the species page.
  • Type: Website.

Variability of elytral color patterns in Coccinellidae - Kerbtier

  • Parameters: Species of Germany.
  • Information: Examples of variation in multiple species. Uses photographs.
  • Navigation: Press on name or photo of species to be taken to its section of the gallery.
  • Type: Website.

The Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) of Moscow Province

  • Parameters: Species of Moscow Province.
  • Information: Biology and distribution. Uses photographs.
  • Navigation: No navigation.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2016.

Käfer Europas - Coccinellidae

  • Parameters: Species of Europe.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, habitat, and more. Uses photographs, figures, and/or illustrations.
  • Navigation: Species divided by subfamily. Species pages can be accessed by pressing on their name highlighted in blue. Pressing and holding on images magnifies them.
  • Type: Website, regularly updated. In German.

семейство Coccinellidae (Божьи коровки)

  • Parameters: Species of the Moscow Region.
  • Information: Photos and collection sites.
  • Navigation: Press on photos to see species pages.
  • Type: Website, updated since 2003. In Russian.

Insects Pictures

  • Parameters: Species of Czechia.
  • Information: Labeled photos.
  • Navigation: Press genus name to view species included.
  • Type: Website, actively updated.

Marihøner Coccinellidae

  • Parameters: Species of Norway.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, habitat, and confusion species. Uses photos.
  • Navigation: Select one of the five tribes and choose a species profile by pressing on it.
  • Type: Website. In Norwegian.


POORANI, J., 2023, An Illustrated Guide to Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian Subcontinent. Part 1. Tribe Coccinellini

  • Parameters: Coccinellini of India.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, habitat, notes, and more. Uses photographs, and/or illustrations.
  • Navigation: See 'treatments', species sorted by genus.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 2023.

POORANI, J., 2023, An illustrated guide to the lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian Subcontinent. Part II. Tribe Chilocorini

  • Parameters: Chilocorini of India.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, habitat, notes, and more. Uses photographs, and/or illustrations.
  • Navigation: See 'treatments', species sorted by genus.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 2023.

Poorani, J., 2023, A review of the tribe Noviini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian subcontinent

  • Parameters: Noviini of India.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, habitat, notes, and more. Uses photographs, and/or illustrations.
  • Navigation: See 'treatments', species sorted by genus.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 2023.

Poorani, J., 2022, A review of the tribe Hyperaspidini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from the Indian region

  • Parameters: Hyperaspidini of India.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, habitat, notes, and more. Uses photographs, and/or illustrations.
  • Navigation: See 'treatments', species sorted by genus.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 2022.

The Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Arunachal Pradesh, East Himalaya, India with new combinations and new country records

  • Parameters: Species in East Himalaya, India.
  • Information: Distribution. Uses photographs.
  • Navigation: No navigation.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2020.
  • Notes: Includes species outside Coccinellidae too.

An annotated checklist of Coccinellidae with four new records from Pakistan (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Species of Pakistan.
  • Information: Distribution, host plants. Uses photographs.
  • Navigation: No navigation.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2018.

Review of the tribe Chilocorini Mulsant from Iran (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Species of Iran
  • Information: Identification, distribution, prey, and more. Uses illustrations.
  • Navigation: Press on highlighted figure number to view figures.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2017.

An annotated checklist of the Coccinellidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Yemen

  • Parameters: Species of Yemen.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and more. Uses illustrations.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2000.


  • Parameters: Species of Osaka.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, similar species, and more. Uses illustrations.
  • Navigation: Press 'こちら' to view a list of species. Highlighted species have a profile.
  • Type: Website. In Japanese.


  • Parameters: Species of Japan.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, seasonal occurrence, and more. Uses photographs.
  • Type: Website, published 2005. In Chinese.

Common Lady Beetles of Bhutan

  • Parameters: Common species of Butan.
  • Information: Labeled photos.
  • Navigation: No navigation.
  • Type: Poster, published 2016.

Subfamilies Coccinellinae and Coccidullinae (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) with New Records from AJK, Pakistan

  • Parameters: Species of Pakistan.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, host plant, and additional remarks.
  • Navigation: No navigation.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2017.

Taiwan Insect - Coccinellidae

  • Parameters: Species of Taiwan.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and confusion species.
  • Navigation: At the top of the page, links for each subfamily are available. Press on them to continue onto the species in that grouping. Tap on a species photo to learn more.
  • Type: Website, last updated 2023. In Chinese.
  • Notes: Includes larval and pupal identification.

Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of Mongolia

  • Parameters: Species of Mongolia.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and habitat. Used illustrations exclusively.
  • Navigation: No navigation.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1984.


Documenting museum records of West African Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Benin and Senegal

  • Parameters: Species of west Africa.
  • Information: Species names, distribution, and more. No photos or illustrations included, functions more as a checklist.
  • Navigation: Pressing on species names may bring up other articles on that species.
  • Type: Research paper, published 2020.

Namibia Biodiversity Database - Family Coccinellidae in Namibia

  • Parameters: Species of Namibia.
  • Information: Checklist of species, includes distribution data. Uses photos.
  • Navigation: Click on a subfamily and continue until you arrive at a species profile.
  • Type: Website, published 2012.


Ladybird Beetles of the AustraLo-pacific Region

  • Parameters: Species of the Pacific.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, remarks, and more. No illustrations or photographs in the preview.
  • Navigation: See 'contents' or type into the 'search' bar.
  • Type: Book, published 2020. Accessible through a preview.

Ladybirds of Australia

  • Parameters: Species of Australia.
  • Information: Many species profiles unfinished. In it's current state, acts best as a chestlist and an image gallery.
  • Navigation: See 'tribes & genera', 'species', and 'search'. 'Compare' allows you to compare photos of different species by selecting their name.
  • Type: Website, last updated 2007.

Review Of The Australian Epilachninae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Epilachninae of Australia.
  • Information: Identification, variation, distribution, remarks, and more. Used illustrations.
  • Type: Research paper, published 1993.

Specific Guides

Included are guides on specific species or genera. As with the general guides, the taxonomies used may be outdated or different to what’s currently being used on iNaturalist.


Increase in dark morphs and decrease in size during a range extension of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Species Cheilomenes sexmaculata.
  • Information: Relation between morph, size, and elevation.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 2015.


Chilocorus infernalis Mulsant

  • Parameters: Species Chilocorus infernalis.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and more.
  • Type: Website.


Coccinella algerica Kovář, 1977: A New Species to the Fauna of Mainland Europe, and a Key to the Coccinella Linnaeus, 1758 of Iberia, the Maghreb and the Canary Islands (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Species Coccinella algerica.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, confusion species, and more. Uses photos.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1977.

Revision of the Palaearctic species of the Coccinella transversoguttata species group with notes on some other species of the genus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Species Group Coccinella transversoguttata.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, confusion species, and more. Uses illustrations.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 2005.

O występowaniu Coccinella saucerotti lutshniki Dobrzh. w Polsce (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae

  • Parameters: Species Coccinella saucerotti lutshniki.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and confusion species. Uses illustrations.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1957. In Polish.

The Status of Coccinella septempunctata L. and its Varieties divaricata Oliv. and confusa Wied.

  • Parameters: Varieties Coccinella septempunctata divaricata and confusa.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and more. Used illustrations.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1962.


The New World Genus Cycloneda Crotch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellini): Historical Review, New Diagnosis, New Generic and Specific Synonyms, and an Improved Key to North American Species

  • Parameters: Select species of the genus Cycloneda.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, remarks, and more. Uses illustrations.
  • Type: scientific paper, published 2002


Variability in color pattern of the eyltra in the succinea-group at two ladybird species - Harmonia axyridis Pall and Harmonia yedoensis Takizawa (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Species Harmonia axyridis and yedoensis.
  • Information: Identification and additional notes.
  • Type: Scientific presentation.


Poorani, J., Booth, R. G., Gracy, R. Gandhi, Anuradha, C., Thanigairaj, R. & Swathi, R. S., 2021, Immature stages, host plants and natural enemies of Henosepilachna implicata (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with DNA sequence data and a new synonym and notes on some Indian species of Epilachnini

  • Parameters: Species Henosepilachna implicata, circularis, vigintioctopunctata, pusillanima and septima.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, host plants, and more. Uses photos.
  • Navigation: See ‘figures’ for photos.
  • Type: Scientific journal, last updated 2023.


Review of the New World Species of Hipppdamia Dejean (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Genus Hipppdamia.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, additional notes, and more. Used illustrations.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1946.


Philippine Species of Illeis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellinae: Psylloborini)

  • Parameters: Illeis koebelei koebelei, koebelei amamiana, and luzonica.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and more. Uses illustrations.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1998.


Revision of the Genus Mulsantina Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

  • Parameters: Genus Mulsantina.
  • Information: Identification, distribution, and more. Uses illustrations.
  • Type: Scientific journal, published 1985.

הועלה ב-דצמבר 4, 2023 02:22 לפנה"צ על ידי that_bug_guy that_bug_guy | 27 תגובות | הוספת תגובה

אוקטובר 26, 2022

Mallard x Muscovy Duck - Way-out Waterfowl

Mallard x Muscovy Duck hybrids, also known as Mule Ducks or Mulards are large crossbred ducks which have been introduced throughout much of the world. These hybrids usually descend from domestic stock and are released or ‘dumped’ into the wild.

On iNaturalist, many mistake Mule Ducks for different species or vise versa. Most commonly, Mule Ducks are incorrectly labeled as one of its parent species, the Mallard and the Muscovy Duck. In this journal entry, field marks of the Mulard will be discussed. Once you understand how to identify a Mulard, you can help correct IDs.

It’s important to note that hybrid and domestic animals have a lot of variety, so be sure to find multiple field marks before making a positive ID. Not every individual will display every trait. With that said, let’s begin.

Field Marks - What to look for

Caruncles and the Bill
One of the parent species, the Muscovy Duck, is known for its fleshy face. The structures covering the bird’s head are called wattles or masks and are composed of caruncles. This trait is passed down to the Mule Duck but is less pronounced. The caruncles are relegated to the bill base and appear as either lumpy growths or as flat bare skin. They are red and/or black in colour.

Generally, the wattles will appear like they do in the graphic. Juvenile and low wattle Muscovies have less carnacle coverage and can be mistaken for Mule Ducks. Some Mule Duck appear to lack any caruncles. Mallards don’t have caruncles.

The bill of the hybrid can range in colour, from pale, to pink, to grey, to black. The bill can be a single color or have darker markings. Yellow bills aren’t characteristic of the hybrid.

Mulard with visible caruncles at the bill base. Bill is a grey tone with darker accents.

Plumage and Feathers
The plumage of Mulards is very variable with many colors and patterns being possible. Much of the time, their plumage is made up of blacks, whites, greys, and/or browns. Commercial Mulards have all-white plumage.

Interestingly, the green sheen from the Muscovy Duck’s feathers consistently makes an appearance, most commonly in the speculum and head, though it's not always present. It should also be noted that Mallard breeds such as the Cayuga also have a green sheen to their feathers, so avoid using this trait alone as a sure-fire way to ID a Mule Duck.

As for the structures of the feathers themselves, they seem to take after Muscovy once again. The feathers on the wings are large and ovalular while the tail feathers are long, flat, and erect (this can be especially noticeable in the water). Some Mule Ducks have even shown themselves to have a Muscovy-like crest on their head, though less prominent.

Mallard signatures, such as chestnut breasts, thick white neck rings, and heads of a separate colour from the body often occur. More female-like traits such as facial stripes too.

Body Structure
The body of the hybrid is more like a Muscovy’s, having a long rear, short thick legs, wide feet, and more pronounced claws. Most Mulards are also extremely large and bulky and males are mentioned to be larger than females.

While unconfirmed, curled tail feathers appear to be greatly reduced or even absent in Mule Ducks. In any case, this trait is much more visible in male Mallards.

Additional Information

Conception and Reproduction
A Mallard-Muscovy pairing actually has a low chance of producing a hybrid naturally, so farmers often use artificial insemination. Because of this, most Mule Ducks encountered are likely to be of domestic origin.

The hybrid of a Mallard-Muscovy pairing will be built differently depending on which parent was which species. A male Muscovy paired with a female Mallard will produce a Mule Duck while a male Mallard and female Muscovy pairing will result in a Hinny. Of the two, Mule Ducks are larger and are used in the commercial meat industry. Hinnies are smaller and the less common form of the hybrid.

Generally, Mule Ducks and Hinnies are sterile and can’t produce offspring of their own. Because of this, most, if not all Mallard x Muscovy Ducks are first-generation hybrids (F1).

Use in the Meat Industry
Mulards are bred for meat and Foie Gras production with males and females serving different purposes. Because they’re hardier, males are used to produce Foie Gras, a French delicacy which involves force-feeding the duck to expand its liver. This process is known as gavage.
Female Mulards are raised for their large breasts as their livers can’t withstand gavage.

Mule Ducks in the meat industry are pure white so once the body is plucked of feathers, no black marks are left on the meat.


A very dark Mule Duck. Note the green sheen on the wing feathers, long tail feathers, and its overall shape. No visible caruncles however.

Size comparison between Mulard and wild Mallard.

Two Mulards, possibly a male and female pair. The observer mentioned that they flew. They have orange legs.

A male Muscovy Duck and (possible) female Mule Duck are seen courting together. Both appear to be wild-types.

A female Mulard, nicknamed Maynard, was able to construct a nest by a pond. She is noted to be very friendly and regularly interacts with the pond’s other inhabitants.

View all of iNaturalist’s RG Mule Duck observations. Again, please don’t spam IDs.

ID Sum-up
Mule Ducks are defined by caruncles at the bill base, a pink bill, and long tail feathers. Other features such as green wing feathers and a Muscovy-like body shape can also be used but with more caution.

Note that certain domestic Mallards and Muscovies can resemble Mule Ducks.

Thank you to @liliumtbn and @rlhardin for reviewing this journal post and suggesting edits. My gratitude also goes out to the identifiers of this hybrid as well.

Photo Credits
A big thanks goes out to those who contributed photos to this journal. Photos are credited in the order they appear. (Please don’t spam IDs)

@chalon9. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, April 5, 2021.

@westernpawildlife. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, February 27, 2022.

@merlu. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, August 11, 2020.

@jessica_peruzzo. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, April 1, 2018.

@americanmamushi. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, March 2022.

@mariourrutia. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, April 8, 2003.

@annalanigan. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, October 20, 2020.

@oliverkomar. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, October 4, 2020.

@pinemartyn. “ “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, December 10, 2017.

@terranova. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, Feb 5, 2022,

@lizholland. “Mallard × Muscovy Duck”, June 20, 2022.

Animal Equality. “What is Foie Gras?”, Animal Equality, February 8, 2022, accessed July 22, 2022.

Zero G Ducks. “Mulius - A Duck / Muscovy Hybrid”, Youtube, February 3, 2022, accessed August 10, 2022.

Poultry Industry. “Ducks World”, Engormix, December 14, 2017, accessed July 19, 2022.

Cornell University. “Domestic Ducks”, Cornell University, 2016, accessed October 14, 2022

Dave Appleton. “Muscovy Duck x Mallard”, Bird Hybrids, March 7, 2014, accessed May 22, 2022.

Ducks and Clucks. “All About Caruncles” Duck and Clucks, January 4, 2013, accessed June 29, 2022.

Dr. Ed Hoffmann. “Mule Duck | aka Mullard, Barbary Duck”, Feathersite, December 1993, accessed January 2022.

R. H. Rigdon and Charles Mott. “Testis in the Sterile Hybrid Duck" | A Histologic and Histochemical Study”, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 1965, accessed Jul 14, 2022.

הועלה ב-אוקטובר 26, 2022 12:18 לפנה"צ על ידי that_bug_guy that_bug_guy | 5 תגובות | הוספת תגובה