אוקטובר 14, 2021

Esterification - Formation of aroma/ester

Esterification - Formation of aroma/ester

An ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH hydroxyl group is replaced by an –O– alkyl (alkoxy) group, as in the substitution reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.

RCO2H + R′OH ⇌ RCO2R′ + H2O

Types of esters

There are two groups of esters, aliphatic and phenolic. Aliphatic esters are those formed with straight chain/non-cyclic molecules (such as alcohols and fatty acids). Phenolic esters are formed from phenolic compounds, which are cyclic in nature.

Example:
Ethanoic acid (Common Name: Acetic acid) CH3COOH
Ethanol C2 H5OH

CH3COOH + C2 H5OH ⇌ CH3COOC2 H5 + H2O

In the presence of a dehydrating agent, e.g. H2SO4, the reaction goes to the right-hand side of the equation:

CH3COOH + C2 H5OH ---> CH3COOC2 H5 + H2O

It is said that aliphatic monocarboxylic esters are the most significant esters for white wines. The second group are those formed from acetic acid and higher alcohols.

Example: Grape phenolic compounds

פורסם ב אוקטובר 14, 2021 07:12 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

אוקטובר 10, 2021

Observations/Identifications of Chamomiles

1. German chamomile or Matricaria chamomilla
Matricaria recutita
> [Matricariinae > Matricaria] > [Matricaria chamomilla]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/49426380
June 13, 2020 in Netherlands

2. Rayless chamomile
Matricaria discoidea
> [Matricariinae > Matricaria] > [Matricaria discoidea]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/51571778
July 1, 2020 in Russia

3. Roman chamomile
Chamaemelum nobile
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis nobilis]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/27806765
June 28, 2019 in United Kingdom

4. Dusky Dog-fennel
Chamaemelum fuscatum
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis fuscatum]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/22332895
April 11, 2019 in Portugal

5. Stinking Chamomile
Anthemis cotula
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis cotula]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/28185677
June 22, 2019 in United States

6. Corn Chamomile
Anthemis arvensis
> [Anthemidinae > Anthemis] > [Anthemis arvensis]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/56052477
August 9, 2020 in Poland

7. Yellow chamomile (Golden Marguerite)
Cota tinctoria
> [Cota] > [Cota tinctoria]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/50912822
June 19, 2020 in Germany



Diploid or Tetraploid ( 2n = 18, 36)
7. Corn Scentless-chamomile
Tripleurospermum inodorum
> [Tripleurospermum] > [Tripleurospermum inodorum]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/32522328
September 11, 2019 in Russia

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/1893922
July 11, 2015 in somewhere near Russia

8. Sea Mayweed
Tripleurospermum maritimum
> [Tripleurospermum] > [Tripleurospermum maritimum]

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/43531953
April 26, 2020 in New Zealand

2n = 18, 54
Genus [Tanacetum]
Go to Appendix IIA


Reference : Flora of North America@efloras.org

  1. www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 > Volume 19
  2. www.efloras.org > Floras of North America >

פורסם ב אוקטובר 10, 2021 10:31 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

אוקטובר 01, 2021

More about Photosynthesis: Difference Between Chlorophyll A and B


Category: Cell Biology
From: https://pediaa.com/difference-between-chlorophyll-a-and-b/#ab

Author: Lakna - a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things.











































Chlorophyll A (Chemical formula: C55H72MgN4O5) Chlorophyll B (Chemical formula: C55H70MgN4 O6)
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
Chlorophyll A is the principal pigment involved in the photosynthesis. Chlorophyll B is the accessory pigment, collecting the energy in order to pass into chlorophyll A
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
Three-fourths (¾) of total chlorophyll in plants are Chlorophyll A. One-fourth (¼) of total chlorophyll in plants are Chlorophyll B.
Chlorophyll A absorbs the light in the range of 430 nm to 660 nm (violet-blue and orange-red light from the spectrum). The wavelengths which are effectively absorbed by chlorophyll A are 430 nm and 662 nm. Chlorophyll A reflects blue-green in color. Chlorophyll B absorbs the light in the range of 450 nm to 650 nm (orange-red light from the spectrum). The wavelength which is effectively absorbed by chlorophyll B is 470 nm. Chlorophyll B reflects yellow-green in color.
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
The solubility of chlorophyll A is low in polar solvents. Chlorophyll A is soluble in petroleum ether. The solubility of chlorophyll B is high in polar solvents like ethanol and methanol compared to chlorophyll A.
------------------------------------ ------------------------------------
Chlorophyll A is present in all the photosynthetic organisms on earth, giving a bluish green color to those organisms. Chlorophyll B gives a yellowish green color to organisms.


Supplementary information:
Visible Color Spectrum Wheel (https://sciencestruck.com/visible-color-spectrum-wheel)

The visible color spectrum wheel is an arrangement of colors in a wheel or circle to show how one color relates to the other.
...... (omitted)

Here is a color wheel from Wikimedia Commons:
Color wheel wavelengths

UV 270nm to 280nm
Violet 400nm
Blue 475nm
Green 510nm
Yellow 570nm
Orange 590nm
Red 650nm

Arrangement of Colors
The wavelength of visible light is between 390 to 750 nm, which is visible to the naked eye in the form of light. In a standard color wheel, all the visible colors are painted on a circle. The three primaries (red, yellow, and blue) are placed around the three points of an equilateral triangle; they are also known as pure colors, as they cannot be made by mixing any other colors.

The secondaries (green, orange, and violet) are then placed in between the primaries at equal distances. They are made by mixing two primary colors in equal proportions. Orange is made by mixing red with yellow; violet is made by mixing red with blue; and green is made by mixing blue with yellow. The six tertiary colors, which are red-orange, red-violet, yellow-green, yellow-orange, blue-green, and blue-violet, are made by mixing each primary color with the adjacent secondary one.

For example, red-orange is made by mixing red (primary) with orange (secondary). Red orange is then placed in between red and orange in the wheel. All the other five tertiary types are placed in it in the same way, i.e., in between the primaries and the secondaries from which they are made.

These 12 colors form the basis of this wheel. However, in reality, there are many more varieties, shades, and hues. Many such wheels show more gradation of colors and have 24 colors on them. In theory, all of them can be made by mixing the primary, with the secondary and tertiary ones; and the total number will be infinite. But in reality, it is very difficult for paint companies to come up with so many variations.

One of the most interesting facts about this wheel is that if it is spinning rapidly, our eyes can see the color white, which is not even there in it. When it spins rapidly, the colors merge into each other very fast, and our mind is not able to distinguish between them. So, their reflection is blended, and we see white light. When all the light of the visible spectrum is absorbed, we see the color black. The color wheel is thus, invaluable for artists as well as physicists, who study the interaction of colors.

פורסם ב אוקטובר 01, 2021 12:13 אחה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

ספטמבר 28, 2021

A Brief on Chamomile - Appendix IIA

One of the Keys to Identify the Plants of Tanacetum
Tanacetum species can be classified according to their leaves:

  • balsamic (T. balsamita),
  • mattram (T. parthenium),
  • common tansy (T. corymbosum) and
  • coarsely bipinnate (T. macrophyllum).

Examples:
Tanacetum balsamita (艾菊) 2n = 18, 54
Common name: Costmary

Perennials, 30–80(–120) cm. Stems 1, erect, simple or branched (strigose, glabrate). Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate (proximal) or sessile (distal); blades (basal and proximal cauline) mostly elliptic to oblong, 10–20 × 2–8 cm, usually not pinnately lobed (sometimes with 1–4+ lateral lobes near bases), margins ± crenate, faces usually silvery strigose or sericeous (at least when young), glabrescent, ± gland-dotted. Heads (3–)10–60+ in corymbiform arrays. Involucres (3–)5–8(–10) mm diam. (phyllaries 40–60+ in 3–4+ series, tips usually ± dilated). Receptacles flat to convex. Ray florets usually 0 [sometimes 12–15, pistillate, fertile; corollas white, laminae 4–6+ mm]. Disc corollas ca. 2 mm. Cypselae ± columnar, 1.5–2 mm, 5–8-ribbed (with non-mucilaginous glands); pappi coroniform, 0.1–0.4 mm (entire or ± toothed). 2n = 18, 54.

Tanacetum parthenium (短舌匹菊) 2n = 18
Common name: Feverfew (Swedish: Mattram)

Pyrethrum parthenium
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/52888276

Tanacetum parthenium
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/94985419


Tanacetum corymbosum(also 艾菊?)
Geographic distribution: Africa, Europe
(Pls refer to: http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:252281-1)

Common name: Scentless feverfew

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/91727128

פורסם ב ספטמבר 28, 2021 08:17 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

מאי 08, 2021

Notes on Medicinal Plants

In an interesting academic research (paper) on medicinal plants in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) [Note 1], there nearly 40% of the medicinal plant species were from families of:-

  • Asteraceae (9)
  • Fabaceae (9)
  • Poaceae (7) [grasses]
  • Solanaceae (6) [nightshades]
  • Capparaceae (6) [rosids > eurosids > malvids]
  • Euphorbiaceae (6) [rosids > eurosids > fabids]
  • Asclepiadaceae (5) and Brassicaceae (5) [cabbage]

“Maximum number of medicinal plant species were recorded from mountains and wadi habitat (44.7%) followed by alluvial and interdunal plain (29.5%), oases, farmlands and plantations (19.7%), inland sand sheets, dunes and mega dunes (18%) coastal and saline habitat (9.8%), urban habitat (8.3%), inland water habitat (3%). Species possessing medicinal properties were not recorded from sabkha and off shore islands.”

“The medicinal plants were categorized into various life forms [Note 2] such as chamaephyte (41%), therophyte (36%), phanerophyte (11%), hemicryptophytes (4%), geophytes (4%) and lianas (4%).”


Note 1: Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(7), pp. 1304-1322, 23 February, 2012 -- Medicinal plants diversity and their conservation status in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
https://academicjournals.org/journal/JMPR/article-full-text-pdf/0A161EC27845

Note 2: Illustration of plant life form:

Therophytes are annual plants that survive harsh condition, and complete their life cycle in one or less than a year when conditions are favourable.

פורסם ב מאי 08, 2021 06:05 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

אפריל 28, 2021

Journal Post of 28 April 2021

Some Interesting Observations/Identifications (as at April 2021):

  1. Pink Banana [Musa velutina] < Banana [Musa] < Banana [Musaceae] < Gingers, Bananas, and Allies [Zingiberales] < Monocots [Liliospsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18437379

  2. Creeping cinquefoil [Potentilla reptans] < Strawberries, Cinquefoil [Cinquefoil < Potentillina < Potentillinae] < Rose [Rosoideae < Rosaceae] < Roses, Elms, Figs, and Allies [Rosales] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20258929

  3. Bluemink [Ageratum houstonianum] < [Ageratum < Ageratinae] < Bonesets, Blazingstars, and Allies [Eupatorieae < Asteroideae (菊亞科)]
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18348846

  4. [Unknown] [Ageratum] < [Ageratum < Ageratinae] < Bonesets, Blazingstars, and Allies [Eupatorieae < Asteroideae (菊亞科)]
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20259231

  5. Wandering Dandelion, merged into Common Dandelion on 29 July 2021 [Taraxacum officinale (ssp. officinale)] < Dandelions [Taraxacum] < Crepidinae < Cichorieae] < Chicories, Dandelions, and Allies [Cichorioideae]
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20071358

    < Sunflowers, Daisies, Asters and Allies [Asteraceae] < Asters, Bellflowers, Fanflowers and Allies [Asterales] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]

  6. Water Clover [Marsilea vestita] < Helicopter Ferns [Marsilea < Marsileaceae < Salviniales < Polypodiidae] < Ferns [Polypodiopsida] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18349467



פורסם ב אפריל 28, 2021 12:36 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

אפריל 16, 2021

Citrus

Most citrus fruit trees are grown as a "grafted combination" of: a scion (good-fruit-quality tree) on the top; and a rootstock - cultivar which resists or tolerates infection by certain disease(s), that forms the lower trunk and root system.

Examples of rootstocks:

  1. Trifoliate Orange, Janpanese bitter orange (Poncirus trifoliata), 2n=18
  2. Grapefruit (Citrus×paridisi)
  3. Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus×reshni)
  4. Orange (Citrus×aurantium)^
  5. Citrumelo = 1 × 2: Poncirus trifoliata × Citrus×paridisi
  6. Citroncirus/Citrange = 1 × 4: Poncirus trifoliata × Citrus×sinensis


^ Sweet orange (Citrus×sinensis, or Citrus×aurantium var. sinensis)
= Citrus maxima (pummelo) × Citrus reticulata (mandarin)



Reference:

  1. Citrus Rootstocks@Agricultural Research Service, USDA
    https://citrusrootstocks.org/

  2. Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation, 2014
    https://doi.org/10.1590/brag.2014.007

פורסם ב אפריל 16, 2021 06:42 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

אפריל 06, 2021

Bidens odorata

Re: iNaturalist Updates: Flag for Taxon - Bidens pilosa (Blackjack) [See Note]
https://www.inaturalist.org/flags/362565


It was mentioned that the species named Bidens odorata, which is very similar to Bidens pilosa / Bidens alba / Bidens alba ssp. radiata, is applicable to Mexico and Guatemala.

Over 100 research grade observations of Bidens odorata were identified during year 2020 @iNaturalist (retrieved on April 6, 2021). I randomly picked 6 (as listed below) of them for a better understanding:

  1. August 27, 2020
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68834771

  2. September 19, 2020
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/60290731

  3. October 30, 2020
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/63847918

  4. November 1, 2020
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/63983741

  5. November 19, 2020
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/65218461

  6. December 29, 2020
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68041832


There are four varieties of Bidens odorata @iNaturalist:-

  • chilpancingensis
  • oaxacencis
  • odorata
  • rosea

Only one observation falls into these varieties:
Bidens odorata var. odorata: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/6842627


Note:
Chemistry and pharmacology of Bidens pilosa: an overview - Tran Dang Xuan and Tran Dang Khanh (c)The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology 2016

פורסם ב אפריל 06, 2021 03:14 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

מרץ 31, 2021

Identifications related to Bidens alba

Number of Identifications suggested: 9
during period from January 9, 2021 to 31 March, 2021.

Bidens alba ssp. radiata

  1. Observed: March 20, 2019 -- Florida, US
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21433991

  2. Observed: 9 April, 2020 -- Puerto Rico
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/41782288

Bidens alba

  1. Observed: October 6, 2018 -- Florida, US
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17260479

  2. Observed: August 28, 2018 -- Hong Kong
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15965460

  3. Observed: 5 July, 2018 -- (somewhere near Mexico) Texas, US
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14089548

  4. Observed: 2 March, 2021 -- countryside of Hong Kong
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70545241

  5. Observed: 19 November, 2020 -- Hong Kong
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/65209659

  6. Observed: 29 March, 2021 -- Florida, US
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72376281

Bidens pilosa var. minor

  1. Observed: 28 May, 2017 -- China
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66859290


A specimen of [Bidens pilosa var. radiata > Bidens alba (var. radiata) > Bidens alba ssp. radiata]
Source: https://cdn.plantatlas.org/img/specimens/USF/235471.jpg

[Bidens alba ssp. radiata] < [Bidens alba]
< Bur Marigolds [Bidens]
< Coreopsis and Allies [Coreosideae < Asteroideae (菊亞科)]
< Sunflowers, Daisies, Asters and Allies [Asteraceae] < Asters, Bellflowers, Fanflowers and Allies [Asterales]
< Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]

פורסם ב מרץ 31, 2021 10:22 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה

פברואר 06, 2021

Autumn Foliage / Colors of Leaves - Appendix

There are 3 groups, or 6 types, of red anthocyanin compounds:

  1. pelargonidin [orange, salmon] & [orange, red] e.g. strawberries
  2. cyanidin [red] & [magenta] e.g. red-skin fruits & vegi
    > peonidin [purplish red] & [red-brown] e.g. rose flower

  3. delphinidin [blue, purple] & [blue] e.g. grapes
    > malvidin [purple] & [purple]
    > petunidin [purple] & [dark red]

A typical anthocyanin pigment appears red in acid, violet in neutral, and blue in alkaline solution.
Intense light and low temperatures favour the development of anthocyanin pigments.


3-Deoxyanthocyanidins are yellow anthocyanidins. 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins are reported to be stable to color loss due to change in pH.

  • Apigeninidin
  • Columnidin
  • Diosmetinidin
  • Gesneridin
  • Luteolinidin
  • Tricetinidin

Reference:
http://www.self.gutenberg.org/articles/3-Deoxyanthocyanidin

פורסם ב פברואר 06, 2021 08:49 לפנה"צ על־ידי lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | הוספת תגובה